Energy Storage Systems and Equipment
1.1 These requirements cover an energy storage system (ESS) that is intended to receive and store
energy in some form so that the ESS can provide electrical energy to loads or to the local/area electric
power system (EPS) when needed. Electrochemical, chemical, mechanical, and thermal ESS are covered
by this Standard. The ESS shall be constructed either as one unitary complete piece of equipment or as
matched assemblies, that when connected, in accordance with the manufacturer’s installation instructions,
form the ESS. An ESS consists of at least an energy storage function and energy storage protective
function. If the ESS includes multiple parts that are housed in separate enclosures, it shall be considered
as a multi-part ESS covered by this Standard. Individual parts (e.g. power conversion equipment, a
battery, etc.) of an ESS are not considered an ESS on their own. This Standard evaluates the compatibility
and safety of these various components and parts integrated into an ESS. The ESS can be an AC ESS or
a DC ESS as defined in this Standard.
1.2 The systems covered by this Standard include those intended to be used in a standalone mode (e.g.
islanded) including "self-supply" systems to provide electrical energy and those used in parallel with an
electric power system or electric utility grid such as "grid-supply" systems, or applications that perform
ancillary operational modes associated with power generation such as voltage support and regulation,
frequency support and regulation, volt-var, capacity reserve, energy shifting or other utility grid support
1.3 Energy storage systems are intended for installation and use in accordance with the National
Electrical Code, NFPA 70, the Canadian Electrical Code, Part I Safety Standard for Electrical Installations,
CSA C22.1, the National Electrical Safety Code, IEEE C2, the International Fire Code, ICC IFC, the
International Residential Code, ICC IRC, the National Fire Code of Canada, NRC NFC, the Fire Code,
NFPA 1, and the Standard for the Installation of Stationary Energy Storage Systems, NFPA 855.
Requirements for installation, with the exception of installation manuals and documents for installation
provided with the system are outside the scope of this Standard.
1.4 This Standard covers energy storage systems for stationary indoor and outdoor installations. This
Standard also covers mobile energy storage systems as defined by this Standard. This Standard includes
requirements for energy storage systems used in residential and non-residential installations.
1.5 Systems using lead acid or Ni-cad batteries that fall within the scope of UL 1778/CSA C22.2 No.
107.3 and only serve an uninterruptible power system (UPS) application are outside the scope of this
NOTE: UL 1778/CSA C22.2 No. 107.3 is applicable to UPS that employ chemistries other than lead acid or Ni-cad, but the fire codes
and the ESS installation standard do not exclude UPS applications from ESS criteria including compliance to this Standard for these
1.6 The maximum energy capacity of individual electrochemical ESS shall be determined by the
following in (a) – (d). Where the results of testing are used, the results shall be determined in accordance
with the Standard for Test Method for Evaluating Thermal Runaway Fire Propagation in Battery Energy
Storage Systems, UL 9540A:
a) The maximum energy capacity of residential use electrochemical ESS shall not exceed 20 kWh
(72 MJ). This value shall be permitted to be increased to the value of the unit which meets the
performance criteria of the UL 9540A Unit Level test;
b) The maximum energy capacity of non-residential use electrochemical ESS shall not exceed 50
kWh (180 MJ). This value shall be permitted to be increased to the value of the unit which meets
the performance criteria of the UL 9540A Installation Level test, provided the ESS is marked in
accordance with 45.20;
c) There is no maximum energy capacity limit for non-residential use electrochemical ESS that are
tested in accordance with UL 9540A in which the performance level criteria of the cell level test
have been met; and
d) There is no maximum energy capacity limit for non-residential use electrochemical ESS
intended for use in remote outdoor locations as defined in the applicable installation code, provided
they are marked in accordance with 45.21.
NOTE 1: The Standard for the Installation of Stationary Energy Storage Systems, NFPA 855 defines outdoor remote locations as
being located more than 30.5 m (100 ft) from exposures.
NOTE 2: Lead acid, Ni-Cad, Ni-MH, and Ni-Zn ESS have exceptions to the capacity energy limits including, in some cases, no limits
based upon specific telecom and utility installations as outlined in NFPA 855.